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   Free Polish Grammar  
    
                          
Polish alphabet  Polish articles  Polish prepositions Polish feminine 
 Polish numbers
 Polish adjectives
  Polish nouns  Polish pronouns Polish questions
 Polish vocabulary
 Polish adverbs
 Polish verbs
  Polish plural  Polish negation Polish videos lessons



         
Learning the Polish language alphabet is very essential because its structure is used in every day dialogue. Without it, you will not be able to say words effectively even if you know how to build those words. The better you articulate a letter in a word, the more recognized you will be in speaking the Polish.

Upper
case
Lower
case
Polish nameUsual valueRough English (or
other) equivalent
Other values
Aaa/a/between cat and cut
Ąąą/ɔ̃/nasal o as French bon/ɔn/, /ɔm/ (see Nasal vowels)
Bbbe/b/bed/p/ when devoiced
Ccce/t​͡s/pitsFor ch, ci, cz see Digraphs below
Ććcie/t​͡ɕ/cheap (alveolo-palatal)
Ddde/d/dog/t/ when devoiced. For dz etc. see Digraphs below
Eee/ɛ/bed
Ęęę/ɛ̃/nasal e/ɛn/, /ɛm/ (see Nasal vowels)
Ffef/f/fat
Gggie/ɡ/go/k/ when devoiced. For gi see Digraphs below
Hhha/x/Scots lochFor ch and (c)hi see Digraphs below
Iii/i/meet/j/, or palatization (see Spelling rules)
Jjjot/j/yes
Kkka/k/scant/ɡ/ if voiced. For ki see Digraphs below
Llel/l/light
Łł/w/will
Mmem/m/men
Nnen/n/notFor ni see Digraphs below
Ńń/ɲ/canyon (alveolo-palatal)
Ooo/ɔ/British English long
Óóo (or u) z kreską/u/boot
Pppe/p/spot/b/ if voiced
Rrer/r/trilled rFor rz see Digraphs below
Sses/s/seaFor sz, si see Digraphs below
Śś/ɕ/sheep (alveolo-palatal)/ʑ/ (cf. Ź) if voiced
Ttte/t/start/d/ if voiced
Uuu/u/bootSometimes /w/ after vowels
Wwwu/v/vow/f/ when devoiced
Yyigrek/ɨ/between fit and put
Zzzet/z/zoo/s/ when devoiced. For digraphs see below
Źźziet/ʑ/vision, alveolo-palatal/ɕ/ when devoiced. For see Digraphs below
Żżżet/ʐ/vision/ʂ/ when devoiced. For see Digraphs below
           Learn Polish Grammar online

                          History and classification:


The Polish language belongs to the West-Slavic cluster of the Indo-European languages beside Czech and Slovak. It emerged from the Proto Slavic languages as used because the tongue of all Slavic tribes within the past. Polish has developed such a lot that the texts written within the Middle Ages don't seem to be 100-per-cent graspable to up to date Poles and want to be browse with a wordbook of archaisms. throughout the days of the Partitions of Poland (1795 till 1918) the Prussian and the Russian conquerors tried to eradicate the Polish identity, however their plans eventually failing and Poles preserved their language virtually intact.


                           Geographic distribution:

Polish is that the official language of Poland. It's additionally used as a second language in some elements of Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. This development is caused by migrations and re settlements in addition as frontier changes brought by the Yalta agreement in 1945 when war II. As a result, many Poles were left outside the territory of their motherland. Polish is spoken, naturally, by Polish emigrants living all round the world, additionally by their kids and grandchildren. the entire variety of speakers worldwide is concerning fifty million.


                                        Dialects:

There are solely a couple of dialects that dissent from the standard Polish language, but the variations among them don't seem to be important and largely supported regional pronunciation and vocabulary changes. The foremost distinguishable are the dialects of Silesia and Pothole (highlander's dialect). Value mentioning is Kasubian - a separate language utilized by the inhabitants living west of Gdansk close to the Baltic Sea. The amount of its users is calculable at somewhere between 100,000 and 200,000. Though it's bit by bit turning into extinct, lots of effort is being place into saving it and it recently begun to be instructed at native schools as a minority language.

                           General characteristics:


Polish, like different Indo - European languages, shares some Latin descriptive linguistics and vocabulary. There are three tenses (past, present and future), two numbers (singular & plural), plus three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). There aren't any articles however Polish, like Latin, and is an inflectional language that distinguishes seven cases, shaping the noun usage in an exceedingly sentence. This feature makes our tongue troublesome to master and presents lots of bother to foreigners.

           Map of Polish Dialects

                               Map of Polish dialects